Frequently Asked Questions

This page is meant for those who approach laser therapy for the first time and for those who want to know a little bit more about it.
Here you find few simple and easy-to-get definitions, useful technical pills, tips and tricks.

Laser definitions

The term laser originated as an acronym for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation.

Laser light comes with several unique features:

  • Monochromacy: differently from visible light that comes in several colors spanning from red to blue.
  • Coherence: all the light waves are in phase both spatially and temporally.
  • Collimation: all rays are parallel to each other and do not diverge significantly even over long distances.

The key values to measure and describe laser are:

  • Power (W): energy delivered by the laser per unit time.
  • Power density (W/cm²): power of the laser in relation to the irradiated surface (spot).
  • Frequency (Hz).
  • Interaction with tissues.

The effects of laser radiation on tissues will be different, according to the power and to the level of focus of the laser beam:

  • Absorption
  • Reflection
  • Diffusion or refraction
  • Transmission

We perceive light as a combination of colours between wavelengths of 380 nm (violet) and 740 nm (red). This is why we hear talking about ultraviolet light or infrared light when referring to the non-visible spectrum.

The unit of measurement for wavelength is the nanometre (nm) and is defined as the distance between two points in a successive wave.

Red and infrared laser light interacts with different receptors, called chromophores, at different wavelengths. When a specific wavelength interacts with a specific chromophore this phenomenon is called resonance.

These are the reasons why DoctorVet combines 3 different wavelengths + aimong bean depending on the targeted chromophore and the desired effect:

The light pulsation is used to make the most of the resonance between laser wavelength and the target tissue while modulating the energy emission.

The frequency setting, measured in Hertz (Hz), allows DoctorVet to alternate moments of emission with moments of tissue relaxation per unit of time. This way a higher power, measured in Watts (W), corresponds to an adequate recovery time for the tissues involved.

To better explain this concept, we can use a metaphor: the candle flame.

If you put the finger on a candle flame, the prolonged and continuous heat will scorch it. Instead, if you move the finger quickly over the flame, the exposure time will shorten, avoiding any damage.

In this scenario the power of the flame was constant and only the exposure time was changed.

When moved quickly over the candle flame repetitively, the finger tissue has indeed an adequate time to relax and disperse the heat accumulated during the exposure.

Continuous Wave (CW) in doctorVet is comparable to keeping the finger still high above the candle flame; whereas Pulsed is to move the finger on and off the flame retentively: the frequency in this case is the time above the candle flame vs. the time away from it.

The faster you move your finger above the flame, the higher the heat intensity you can bear. Changing the frequency from LOW / MEDIUM / HIGH Pulsation will therefore have different effects on the tissue.

Laser therapy

Laser is a light that stimulates the body to do what it naturally does, but faster and more efficiently.

The therapy occurs when a dose of light energy reaches the target tissue resulting in inflammation control, pain reduction and tissue biostimulation. It is suitable to treat a wide variety of conditions including pre-surgical, post-surgical, acute, and chronic disease states.

When it comes about doctorVet, he combination of 3 different wave lengths stimulates 3 different chromophores – melanin, hemoglobin, and cytochrome c oxidase – which trigger 3 main effects:

1. Blood circulation
a. Stimulate capillary micro-circulation.
b. Improve red blood cells profusion to tissues.

2. Oxygenation
a. Stimulates oxygen release from blood to tissues.
b. Improve oxygenation of therapy target tissues.

3. Metabolic stimulation
a. Improve ATP cycle efficiency.
b. Increase tissues energy level.

  • Class IV Power to treat patients effectively in a short time.
  • Wavelengths that penetrate and target biological chromophores.
  • Variable Frequencies that target different tissues in the body.
    Bone and soft tissue are on opposite ends of this spectrum, so it is important that your therapy laser is capable of spanning this therapeutic range – from 1 Hz up to 15,000 or even 25,000 Hz.
  • Easy and quick access to patient targeted clinical protocols.
    The appropriate parameter-sets (power, pulse, and wavelength) and delivery method for a particular laser treatment depend on the type of animal, the color of the animal, and the specific condition and tissue-types being treated.
  • Consistency and predictability from treatment to treatment
  • Consistency and predictability from operator to operator
  • On-demand assistance on treatment technique

Very high power without control

The pain threshold for laser therapy is about 1–2 watts/cm2 of power density. The typical treatment size for most Class IV therapy lasers is about 10 cm2. 15 watts of continuous wave power continuously would be dangerously close to, if not above, the pain threshold. DoctorVet has pre-established protocols to control the dose and power applied to the patient at all times.

A wavelength above 960nm

Laser therapy will not be as effective if the light is absorbed by water and converted into heat. Wavelengths in the range 960nm –980 nm coincide with a peak of water’s absorption of light, which leads to a quicker conversion of light into heat. This inhibits penetration and leads to local thermal accumulation which, beyond simply heating the tissue, does not have much therapeutic benefit.

Laser therapy is painless and has no contraindications. However:

  1. MUST NOT be used on the eyes.

This is why DoctorVet comes with #3 protective glasses for the operator and protective glasses for the patient (Doggles) are available (optional).

  1. MUST NOT be used on the uterus and neighbouring areas during pregnancy.
  2. MUST NOT be used on tumours, precisely because the bio stimulation of cells and tissues.
  3. In case of steroid administration, wait 7-10 days before practicing therapy.


Laser therapy is not as effective if the energy emitted by the laser is absorbed by the water in the tissue and converted into heat. Wavelengths between 960nm and 980nm coincide with peak absorption by water.

This inhibits the ability of the laser to penetrate the tissues and causes of localized heating. It is more interesting to use those wavelengths that are absorbed by the chromophores that produce the photobiomodulation.

The ability of the therapeutic laser to stimulate main receptors, melanin, haemoglobin, and cytochrome-C oxidase decays exponentially with wavelengths greater than 940 nm.

The wavelength of the laser determines the interaction’s intensity between the laser and the water in the tissues.

The CO2 laser works with a wavelength of 10,600nm and superficially interacts with water. The absorption/depth ratio of the water penetration is 0.01mm.

The diode laser works with a wavelength between 800 and 1,000nm, ten times smaller than that of the CO2 laser. At the same depth, the diode laser demonstrates a water interaction force thousands of times greater than the CO2 laser, giving an absorption/depth ratio of the water penetration of 8 mm.

The higher cutting speed and the limited depth of the thermal damage make the CO2 laser is ideal for soft tissue surgery.

The diode laser is instead best suited for therapy and bio stimulation, as it penetrates deeper the tissues and interacts with melanin and haemoglobin as well as with water.

DoctorVet Laser
  1. Accurate diagnosis.
  2. Patient’s positioning and posture: – Convenient for the patient and the for the operator. – Easy access to the treatment area.
  3. Treatment separation into stages:
    1. Continuous power (CW) for pain and bio stimulation.
    2. Minimal pulsation (Hz) for bones and dense tissues.
    3. Medium pulsation (Hz) for connective tissue and muscles.
  4. Contact or non-contact between the patient and the handpiece.
  5. Using the appropriate treatment head for the specific treatment.
  6. Type of movements to apply on the patient.
  7. Wear of protective glasses: – Operator. – Owner. – Patient.
The operator must take care of the diagnosis and the position, the rest will be driven by DoctorVet!
  1. Factors that affect the choice of power, continuous (CW) or pulsed are:
    1. Cellular size
    2. Cell density
    3. Tissue density

    These are the reasons why DoctorVet divides the treatment into phases, and each phase is optimized for a specific tissue:

    1. Continuous power (CW) for pain and bio stimulation
    2. Minimal pulsation (Hz) for bones and dense tissues
    3. Medium pulsation (Hz) for connective tissue and muscles

    It is demonstrated by scientific studies that:

    1. Antibacterial and antimicrobial effect is achieved with frequency > 10,000Hz.
    2. Wounds heal at frequencies > 10,000Hz.

    doctorVet reaches 25,000Hz!

It depends on the patient, on the clinical history, and on the severity of the situation. However, we can share here general guidelines:

  • Post-surgical incisions: 1 treatment.
  • Wounds or infections: 3-10 treatments
  • Acute pain: 3-6 treatments
  • Chronic pain: 6 treatments distributed in 3 weeks, more in case of re-exacerbations.
    • 2 treatments per week or
    • progressively 3, then 2, then 1 treatment per week.
  • Orthopaedic surgery: 3-6 treatments at the time of
    • Consultation/diagnosis
    • Hospital admittance
    • Hospital discharge
    • Eventual check-ups

provides you with all the suggestions you need depending on the clinical case!